Analysis of the Geiger Muller Ability on the Effect of Collimation Area and Irradiation Distance on the Dose of X-Ray Machine Measurements

  • Wahyu Pratama Department of Medical Electronics Technology, Poltekkes Kemenkes Surabaya
  • Muhammad Ridha Mak'ruf Department of Medical Electronics Technology, Poltekkes Kemenkes Surabaya
  • Tri Bowo Indrato Department of Medical Electronics Technology, Poltekkes Kemenkes Surabaya
  • Endro Yulianto Department of Medical Electronics Technology, Poltekkes Kemenkes Surabaya
  • Lamidi Lamidi Department of Medical Electronics Technology, Poltekkes Kemenkes Surabaya
  • Maduka Nosike Federal University Gusau, Nigeria
  • Sambhrant Srivastava APJ Abul Kalam Technical University, India
Keywords: Radiation, Geiger Muller, Arduino, X-Ray

Abstract

Radiation cannot be felt directly by the five human senses. For the occupational safety and security, a radiation worker or radiographer is endeavored to receive radiation dose as minimum as possible, which is by monitoring the radiation using a radiation measuring device. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of collimation area and irradiation distance on x-ray dose measurement using Geiger Muller. In this case, the author tried to make a dosimeter by using the Muller Geiger module and displayed it on a personal computer. This research employed Muller Geiger sensor to detect X-ray dose and velocity, Arduino for data programming, Bluetooth HC-05 for digital communication tool between hardware and personal computer, and personal computer to display the reading. Current research was conducted using Pre-Experimental research design. Based on the results of data collection and comparison with the standard tool, it can be concluded that the greater the tube current setting (mA), the greater the dose and rate of radiation exposure at a distance of 100cm with 50KV and 70KV settings, and a distance of 150cm with 50KV settings. However, it is inversely proportional to the measurement results at a distance of 150cm with a 70KV setting. The results of this study are further expected to determine the ability of Geiger Muller to measure the dose to the irradiation distance or collimation area and can be used as a reference for further research in this field.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

C. A. Miller, S. D. Clarke, and S. A. Pozzi, “Effects of Detector Cell Size on Dose Rate Measurements using Organic Scintillators,” 2017 IEEE Nucl. Sci. Symp. Med. Imaging Conf. NSS/MIC 2017 - Conf. Proc., pp. 2–4, 2018, doi: 10.1109/NSSMIC.2017.8532804.

N. A. Abd Rahman et al., “GSM module for wireless radiation monitoring system via SMS,” IOP Conf. Ser. Mater. Sci. Eng., vol. 298, no. 1, 2018, doi: 10.1088/1757-899X/298/1/012040.

N. H. Wijaya, Budimansyah, and D. Sukwono, “Wireless X-ray Machine Control Based on Arduino with Kv Parameters,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser., vol. 1430, no. 1, 2020, doi: 10.1088/1742-6596/1430/1/012040.

D. Tisseur et al., “Performance evaluation of several well-known and new scintillators for MeV X-ray imaging,” 2018 IEEE Nucl. Sci. Symp. Med. Imaging Conf. NSS/MIC 2018 - Proc., pp. 1–3, 2018, doi: 10.1109/NSSMIC.2018.8824663.

A. (US) Allen B. Wright, Tucson, AZ (US); Eddy J. Peters, Tucson, “Nuclear Detection Via A System Of Widely Distributed Low Cost Detectors Having Data Including Gamma Intensities, Time Stamps And Geo-Positions,” Syst. Method Sel. Transm. Images Interes. To a User, vol. 1, no. 12, pp. 1–4, 2002.

B. Bilki, Y. Onel, E. Tiras, J. Wetzel, and D. Winn, “Development of Radiation-Hard Scintillators and Wavelength-Shifting Fibers,” 2018 IEEE Nucl. Sci. Symp. Med. Imaging Conf. NSS/MIC 2018 - Proc., pp. 2018–2021, 2018, doi: 10.1109/NSSMIC.2018.8824541.

A. S. Voyles et al., “Excitation functions for (p,x) reactions of niobium in the energy range of Ep = 40–90 MeV,” Nucl. Instruments Methods Phys. Res. Sect. B Beam Interact. with Mater. Atoms, vol. 429, pp. 53–74, 2018, doi: 10.1016/j.nimb.2018.05.028.

T. E. Walters, P. M. Kistler, J. B. Morton, P. B. Sparks, K. Halloran, and J. M. Kalman, “Impact of collimation on radiation exposure during interventional electrophysiology,” Europace, vol. 14, no. 11, pp. 1670–1673, 2012, doi: 10.1093/europace/eus095.

D. Magalotti, P. Placidi, M. Dionigi, A. Scorzoni, L. Bissi, and L. Servoli, “A wireless personal sensor node for the Dosimetry of Interventional Radiology operators,” 2015 IEEE Int. Symp. Med. Meas. Appl. MeMeA 2015 - Proc., pp. 196–201, 2015, doi: 10.1109/MeMeA.2015.7145198.

L. J. Brillson, “Photoemission with Soft X-Rays,” Surfaces Interfaces Electron. Mater., pp. 129–145, 2012, doi: 10.1002/9783527665709.ch8.

D. S. Kim, “Image Restoration for CsI(Tl)-Scintillator Mammography Detectors,” Med. Phys., vol. 45, no. 12, pp. 5461–5471, 2018, doi: 10.1002/mp.13218.

G. K. Barends, B. Utomo, and T. B. Indrato, “Design of Instrument Measurement for X-Ray Radiation with Geiger Muller,” vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 13–20, 2020.

M. Bath, “Evaluating Imaging Systems : Practical Applications,” Radiat. Prot. Dosimetry, vol. 139, no. 1, pp. 26–36, 2010.

T. Grundl et al., “Continuously tunable, polarization stable SWG MEMS VCSELs at 1.55 μ m,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett., vol. 25, no. 9, pp. 841–843, 2013, doi: 10.1109/LPT.2013.2250276.

Dance.D.R, Diagnostic Radiology Physics. 2014.

P. Bhattacharya et al., “TlZrCl and TlHfCl Intrinsic Scintillators for Gamma Rays and Fast Neutron Detection,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci., vol. 67, no. 6, pp. 1032–1034, 2020, doi: 10.1109/TNS.2020.2997659.

P. Q. Vuong, H. J. Kim, H. Park, G. Rooh, and S. H. Kim, “Pulse shape discrimination study with Tl 2 ZrCl 6 crystal scintillator,” Radiat. Meas., vol. 123, pp. 83–87, 2019, doi: 10.1016/j.radmeas.2019.02.007.

H. R. Fajrin, Z. Rahmat, and D. Sukwono, “Kilovolt peak meter design as a calibrator of X-ray machine,” Int. J. Electr. Comput. Eng., vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 2328–2335, 2019, doi: 10.11591/ijece.v9i4.pp2328-2335.

D. Barclay, “IMPROVED RESPONSE OF GEIGER MULLER DETECTORS,” vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 613–616, 1986.

and S. U. Iv´an Morales, Member, IEEE, Andr´es Monterroso, “Design, Assembly and Calibration of a microcontroller-based Geiger-M¨uller doserate meter,” no. Fig 2, pp. 1–11, 2012.

J. Poletti, “The effect of source to image distance on radiation risk to the patient,” Australas. Phys. Eng. Sci. Med., vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 110–114, 2003, doi: 10.1007/BF03178779.

A. Toda and S. Kishimoto, “X-Ray Detection Capabilities of Plastic Scintillators Incorporated with ZrO2Nanoparticles,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci., vol. 67, no. 6, pp. 983–987, 2020, doi: 10.1109/TNS.2020.2978240.

P. Press, “Protection against ionizing radiation from external sources used in medicine,” Ann. ICRP, vol. 9, no. 1, 1982.

C. C. Chen, Y. J. Liu, G. N. Sung, C. C. Yang, C. M. Wu, and C. M. Huang, “Smart electronic dose counter for pressurized metered dose inhaler,” IEEE Biomed. Circuits Syst. Conf. Eng. Heal. Minds Able Bodies, BioCAS 2015 - Proc., vol. 121, no. 3, p. 7234, 2015, doi: 10.1109/BioCAS.2015.7348320.

H. Yu et al., “Significant Enhancement in Light Output of Photonic-Crystal-Based YAG:Ce Scintillator for Soft X-Ray Detectors,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci., vol. 66, no. 12, pp. 2435–2439, 2019, doi: 10.1109/TNS.2019.2954692.

R. Malhotra and Y. B. Gianchandani, “A microdischarge-based neutron radiation detector utilizing a stacked arrangement of micromachined steel electrodes with gadolinium film for neutron conversion,” IEEE Sens. J., vol. 15, no. 7, pp. 3863–3870, 2015, doi: 10.1109/JSEN.2015.2397006.

R. Malhotra and Y. B. Gianchandani, “A microdischarge-based neutron radiation detector utilizing sputtered gadolinium films for neutron conversion,” Proc. IEEE Sensors, pp. 1–4, 2013, doi: 10.1109/ICSENS.2013.6688132.

R. Malhotra and Y. B. Gianchandani, “A Gamma Radiation Detector With Orthogonally Arrayed Micromachined Electrodes,” J. Microelectromechanical Syst., vol. 24, no. 5, pp. 1314–1321, 2015, doi: 10.1109/JMEMS.2015.2394322

Published
2022-07-28
How to Cite
[1]
W. Pratama, “Analysis of the Geiger Muller Ability on the Effect of Collimation Area and Irradiation Distance on the Dose of X-Ray Machine Measurements ”, j.electron.electromedical.eng.med.inform, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 161-169, Jul. 2022.
Section
Research Paper