Enhancing the Electrocardiogram Signal Quality by Applying Butterworth Infinite Impulse Response Filter 8th Order
The electrocardiogram (ECG) of the human body is an important basis in heart function as well as the diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases, which has a very vital role in clinical diagnosis. Obtaining high-quality ECG signals with a portable remote ECG acquisition system is a big challenge given limited resources. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), disorders of the cardiovascular system still rank high, causing about 31% of deaths globally. This is because the symptoms of cardiovascular disease cannot be seen directly, but rather by conducting an electrocardiograph (ECG) examination. The purpose of this research is to develop and analysis the ECG signal by comparing the 2nd order AD8232 module analogue filter with the 8th order Butterworth digital filter by applying infinite impulse response. This research uses a multiplexer circuit for switching leads, AD8232 ECG module, 50Hz notch filter circuit, non-inverting amplifier, adder, Arduino Mega 2560, USB module, and an application to display digital signals, namely Delphi 7. Signal acquisition is done by monitoring for one minute. Data collection was carried out with 5 respondents 5 times on each lead. The results of the data collection can be concluded that 80% of digital filters display smoother signals for ECG signals than analogue filters.
P. Dedhia, H. Doshi, M. Rane, and G. Ahuja, “Low cost solar ECG with Bluetooth transmitter,” 2012 Int. Conf. Biomed. Eng. ICoBE 2012, no. February, pp. 419–423, 2012, doi: 10.1109/ICoBE.2012.6179050.
Y. Lin and M. Sriyudthsak, “Design and Development of Standard 12-Lead ECG Data Acquisition and Monitoring System,” Procedia Comput. Sci., vol. 86, no. March, pp. 136–139, 2016, doi: 10.1016/j.procs.2016.05.034.
R. R. Chamley, D. A. Holdsworth, K. Rajappan, and E. D. Nicol, “ECG interpretation,” Eur. Heart J., vol. 40, no. 32, pp. 2663–2666, 2019, doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehz559.
R. J. Martis, U. R. Acharya, C. M. Lim, K. M. Mandana, A. K. Ray, and C. Chakraborty, “Application of higher order cumulant features for cardiac health diagnosis using ECG signals,” Int. J. Neural Syst., vol. 23, no. 4, 2013, doi: 10.1142/S0129065713500147.
D. Lucani, G. Cataldo, J. Cruz, G. Villegas, and S. Wong, “A portable ECG monitoring device with Bluetooth and Holter capabilities for telemedicine applications,” Annu. Int. Conf. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. - Proc., pp. 5244–5247, 2006, doi: 10.1109/IEMBS.2006.260798.
E. Menzies-Gow, “How to record a 12-lead electrocardiogram,” Nurs. Stand., vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 38–42, 2018, doi: 10.7748/ns.2018.e11066.
M. Nakagawa et al., “Effect of ECG filter settings on J-waves,” J. Electrocardiol., vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 7–11, 2014, doi: 10.1016/j.jelectrocard.2013.10.001.
M. A. Serhani, H. T. El Kassabi, H. Ismail, and A. N. Navaz, “ECG monitoring systems: Review, architecture, processes, and key challenges,” Sensors (Switzerland), vol. 20, no. 6, 2020, doi: 10.3390/s20061796.
K. Khunti, “Accurate interpretation of the 12-lead ECG electrode placement: A systematic review,” Health Educ. J., vol. 73, no. 5, pp. 610–623, 2014, doi: 10.1177/0017896912472328.
A. S. Putra, “Manual Report & Integrated Development Environment Borland Delphi 7.0,” pp. 1–3.
R. Zhang, X. Fang, Y. Liu, J. Liao, B. Li, and M. Q. H. Meng, “Design of a real-time ECG filter for resource constraint computer,” 2012 IEEE Int. Conf. Inf. Autom. ICIA 2012, no. June, pp. 846–849, 2012, doi: 10.1109/ICInfA.2012.6246899.
S. E. Kopperud, H. V. Rukke, H. M. Kopperud, and E. M. Bruzell, “Light curing procedures – performance, knowledge level and safety awareness among dentists,” J. Dent., vol. 58, pp. 67–73, 2017, doi: 10.1016/j.jdent.2017.02.002.
D. Lucani, G. Cataldo, J. Cruz, G. Villegas, and S. Wong, “A portable ECG monitoring device with Bluetooth and Holter capabilities for telemedicine applications,” Annu. Int. Conf. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. - Proc., no. May, pp. 5244–5247, 2006, doi: 10.1109/IEMBS.2006.260798.
J. Li, G. Deng, W. Wei, H. Wang, and Z. Ming, “Design of a Real-Time ECG Filter for Portable Mobile Medical Systems,” IEEE Access, vol. 5, pp. 696–704, 2017, doi: 10.1109/ACCESS.2016.2612222.
P. Guzik and M. Malik, “ECG by mobile technologies,” J. Electrocardiol., vol. 49, no. 6, pp. 894–901, 2016, doi: 10.1016/j.jelectrocard.2016.07.030.
J. Jung, S. Shin, M. Kang, K. H. Kang, and Y. T. Kim, “Development of wearable wireless electrocardiogram detection system using bluetooth low energy,” Electron., vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 1–11, 2021, doi: 10.3390/electronics10050608.
B. G. Irianto, B. Budhiaji, and S. Syaifudin, “Design of electro cardiograph machine based on ATmega microcontroller,” Indones. J. Electr. Eng. Comput. Sci., vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 328–333, 2016, doi: 10.11591/ijeecs.v2.i2.pp328-333.
Y. Cui et al., “Effects of moxa (Folium Artemisiae argyi) smoke exposure on heart rate and heart rate variability in healthy young adults: A randomized, controlled human study,” Evidence-based Complement. Altern. Med., vol. 2013, 2013, doi: 10.1155/2013/510318.
S. Hadiyoso, K. Usman, A. Rizal, and R. Sigit, “Microcontroller-based Mini Wearable ECG Design Desain Mini wearable ECG Berbasis Mikrokontroler,” Inkom, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 1–8, 2013.
A. Prof and T. M. Jamel, “The 2nd Scientific Conference of Electrical Engineering / Technology Design and Implementation of PC-Based 12 Lead ECG Acquisition Systems The 2nd Scientific Conference of Electrical Engineering / Technology,” pp. 4–5, 2011.
H. ChuDuc, K. NguyenPhan, and D. NguyenViet, “A Review of Heart Rate Variability and its Applications,” APCBEE Procedia, vol. 7, no. October 2014, pp. 80–85, 2013, doi: 10.1016/j.apcbee.2013.08.016.
M. Rifali and D. Irmawati, “Sistem Cerdas Deteksi Sinyal Elektrokardiogram (EKG) untuk Klasifikasi Jantung Normal dan Abnormal Menggunakan Jaringan Syaraf Tiruan (JST),” Elinvo (Electronics, Informatics, Vocat. Educ., vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 49–55, 2019, doi: 10.21831/elinvo.v4i1.28242.
B. Campbell, D. Richley, C. Ross, and C. Eggett, “Clinical Guidelines by Consensus. Recording a Standard 12-Lead Electrocardiogram.,” Soc. Cardiol. Sci. & Technol., no. September, p. 25, 2017.
Y. Zhang, G. Sun, and Y. Yang, “12-Lead ECG data acquisition system based on ADS1298,” Procedia Eng., vol. 29, pp. 2103–2108, 2012, doi: 10.1016/j.proeng.2012.01.270.
I. S. N. Murthy and G. S. S. D. Prasad, “Analysis of ECG from Pole-Zero Models,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng., vol. 39, no. 7, pp. 741–751, 1992, doi: 10.1109/10.142649.
R. Sassi et al., “PDF–ECG in clinical practice: A model for long–term preservation of digital 12–lead ECG data,” J. Electrocardiol., vol. 50, no. 6, pp. 776–780, 2017, doi: 10.1016/j.jelectrocard.2017.08.001.
M. A. Agung and Basari, “3-lead acquisition using single channel ECG device developed on AD8232 analog front end for wireless ECG application,” AIP Conf. Proc., vol. 1817, no. 1, p. 40015, Feb. 2017, doi: 10.1063/1.4976800.
P. Gać and M. Sobieszczańska, “Effects of cigarette smoke on Holter ECG recordings in patients with arterial hypertension. Part 1: Time domain parameters of heart rate variability,” Environ. Toxicol. Pharmacol., vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 404–413, 2014, doi: 10.1016/j.etap.2013.12.014.
T. Dobreva and T. Stoyanov, “HIGH-RESOLUTION FRONT-END FOR ECG SIGNAL PROCESSING,” Jan. 2007.
Á. Alesanco and J. García, “Clinical assessment of wireless ECG transmission in real-time cardiac telemonitoring,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Technol. Biomed., vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 1144–1152, 2010, doi: 10.1109/TITB.2010.2047650.
Copyright (c) 2022 Nindia Rena Saputri, Sari Luthfiyah, Dyah Titisari, Bedjo Utomo, Lusiana Lusiana, Triwiyanto Triwiyanto, Faheem Ahmad Reegu
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlikel 4.0 International (CC BY-SA 4.0) that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).