Analysis of the Effectiveness of Using Digital Filters in Electronic Stethoscopes
The heart sound produced in some cases of the disease shows a certain pattern. The purpose of this study was to design an electronic stethoscope for cardiac auscultation with the following display. The contribution in this study is being able to show certain patterns that can be diagnosed in the sound signal. So that the pattern can be known when there is a heart disease disorder, an electronic stethoscope will be made for auscultation of the next display, making it easier for users to diagnose heart disease. The heart sound is obtained from the mechanical activity of the heart which is tapped by a condenser mic. The heart sound will be held in a pre-amp circuit, then the filters used are High Pass Filters and Low Pass Filters with an interrupted frequency of 20-95 Hz. The output of the filter circuit will enter the booster circuit. Then it will be processed by the microcontroller. In processing the data that will be displayed on Nextion and Speaker, the author uses Arduino Mega. Based on the test, it can be seen that the digital filter has a slight error rate because it removes the most noise, while in the analog filter there is still a lot of noise. The results of the research that has been done can be implemented using a system that really supports the needs.
 N. Katyal, M. Mathrani, and M. Kumar Hota, “Preparation of a Digital Stethoscope,” 2018 IEEE Int. Conf. Syst. Comput. Autom. Networking, ICSCA 2018, 2018, doi: 10.1109/ICSCAN.2018.8541261.
 K. Patil, “Design of Wireless Electronic Stethoscope Based on Zigbee,” Int. J. Distrib. Parallel Syst., vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 351–359, 2012, doi: 10.5121/ijdps.2012.3130.
 L. P. W. Frank and M. Q. H. Meng, “A low cost bluetooth powered wearable digital stethoscope for cardiac murmur,” 2016 IEEE Int. Conf. Inf. Autom. IEEE ICIA 2016, no. August, pp. 1179–1182, 2017, doi: 10.1109/ICInfA.2016.7831998.
 F. Belloni, D. Della Giustina, M. Riva, and M. Malcangi, “A new digital stethoscope with environmental noise cancellation,” Int. Conf. Math. Comput. Methods Sci. Eng. - Proc., pp. 169–174, 2010.
 S. Paul, “W O 2013/086112 A l,” vol. 2, no. 12, 2013.
 M. N. Türker et al., “Smart Stethoscope,” TIPTEKNO 2020 - Tip Teknol. Kongresi - 2020 Med. Technol. Congr. TIPTEKNO 2020, 2020, doi: 10.1109/TIPTEKNO50054.2020.9299229.
 S. Swarup and A. N. Makaryus, “Digital stethoscope: Technology update,” Med. Devices Evid. Res., vol. 11, pp. 29–36, 2018, doi: 10.2147/MDER.S135882.
 H. Wang, J. Chen, Y. Hu, Z. Jiang, and C. Samjin, “Heart sound measurement and analysis system with digital stethoscope,” Proc. 2009 2nd Int. Conf. Biomed. Eng. Informatics, BMEI 2009, no. 09209025, 2009, doi: 10.1109/BMEI.2009.5305287.
 A. Ramanathan et al., “Assessment of breath sounds at birth using digital stethoscope technology,” Eur. J. Pediatr., vol. 179, no. 5, pp. 781–789, 2020, doi: 10.1007/s00431-019-03565-8.
 C. Aguilera-Astudillo, M. Chavez-Campos, A. Gonzalez-Suarez, and J. L. Garcia-Cordero, “A low-cost 3-D printed stethoscope connected to a smartphone,” Proc. Annu. Int. Conf. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. EMBS, vol. 2016-Octob, pp. 4365–4368, 2016, doi: 10.1109/EMBC.2016.7591694.
 S. Basu and S. Mamud, “Comparative Study on the Effect of Order and Cut off Frequency of Butterworth Low Pass Filter for Removal of Noise in ECG Signal,” 2020 IEEE Int. Conf. Converg. Eng. ICCE 2020 - Proc., no. October, pp. 156–160, 2020, doi: 10.1109/ICCE50343.2020.9290646.
 C. Leonard and N. H. Shabrina, “Analisis Keefektifan Penggunaan Filter FIR dan IIR pada Sinyal Pernapasan EMGdi dengan Simulasi MATLAB,” Ultim. Comput. J. Sist. Komput., vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 29–34, 2020, doi: 10.31937/sk.v12i1.1618.
 E. Khan, F. Al Hossain, S. Z. Uddin, S. K. Alam, and M. K. Hasan, “A Robust Heart Rate Monitoring Scheme Using Photoplethysmographic Signals Corrupted by Intense Motion Artifacts,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng., vol. 63, no. 3, pp. 550–562, 2016, doi: 10.1109/TBME.2015.2466075.
 P. Oktivasari, R. Riandini, R. A. Fitri, and S. I. Malaon, “Active Filter Analysis on Designing Electronic Stethoscope,” J. Elektron. dan Telekomun., vol. 19, no. 2, p. 51, 2019, doi: 10.14203/jet.v19.51-56.
 D. L. Hall, M. I. McTaggart, and W. K. Jenkins, “Use of adaptive filtering for improved performance in digital stethoscopes,” Conf. Rec. 51st Asilomar Conf. Signals, Syst. Comput. ACSSC 2017, vol. 2017-Octob, pp. 108–112, 2018, doi: 10.1109/ACSSC.2017.8335147.
 J. E. Suseno and M. Burhanudin, “The signal processing of heart sound from digital stethoscope for identification of heart condition using wavelet transform and neural network,” Proc. - 2017 1st Int. Conf. Informatics Comput. Sci. ICICoS 2017, vol. 2018-Janua, pp. 153–157, 2017, doi: 10.1109/ICICOS.2017.8276354.
 Y. Nanda Khurniawan, T. Hamzah, and D. Titisari, “Stetoskop Elektronik Sederhana untuk Auskultasi Jantung dan Paru,” Semin. Tugas Akhir Juni, 2017.
 M. E. H. Chowdhury et al., “Real-time smart-digital stethoscope system for heart diseases monitoring,” Sensors (Switzerland), vol. 19, no. 12, 2019, doi: 10.3390/s19122781.
 G. H. Prabowo, M. R. Mak’ruf, S. Sumber, L. Soetjiatie, and B. Utomo, “Perancangan Stetoskop Elektronik Portable,” J. Teknokes, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 39–44, 2019, doi: 10.35882/teknokes.v12i1.7.
 C. T. Mesquita et al., “Digital stethoscope as an innovative tool on the teaching of auscultatory skills,” Arq. Bras. Cardiol., vol. 100, no. 2, pp. 187–189, 2013, doi: 10.5935/abc.20130033.
 G. A. Mills, “Wireless digital stethoscope using bluetooth technolgy,” Int. J. Eng. Sci. Technol., vol. 4, no. 08, pp. 3961–3969, 2012.
 Y. J. Lin, C. W. Chuang, C. Y. Yen, S. H. Huang, J. Y. Chen, and S. Y. Lee, “Live demonstration: An intelligent stethoscope with ECG and heart sound synchronous display,” Proc. - IEEE Int. Symp. Circuits Syst., vol. 2019-May, pp. 19–22, 2019, doi: 10.1109/ISCAS.2019.8702244.
 V. Rennoll, I. McLane, D. Emmanouilidou, J. West, and M. Elhilali, “Electronic Stethoscope Filtering Mimics the Perceived Sound Characteristics of Acoustic Stethoscope,” IEEE J. Biomed. Heal. Informatics, vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 1542–1549, 2021, doi: 10.1109/JBHI.2020.3020494.
 W. Y. Shi, J. Mays, and J. C. Chiao, “Wireless stethoscope for recording heart and lung sound,” BioWireleSS 2016 - Proceedings, 2016 IEEE Top. Conf. Biomed. Wirel. Technol. Networks, Sens. Syst., pp. 1–4, 2016, doi: 10.1109/BIOWIRELESS.2016.7445545.
 C. K. Pawar and U. M. Chaskar, “FM based eletronic digital stethoscope using DSP,” 2014 Int. Conf. Control. Instrumentation, Commun. Comput. Technol. ICCICCT 2014, pp. 538–542, 2014, doi: 10.1109/ICCICCT.2014.6993020.
 S. Szot, A. Levin, A. Ragazzi, and T. Ning, “A Wireless Digital Stethoscope Design,” Int. Conf. Signal Process. Proceedings, ICSP, vol. 2018-Augus, pp. 74–78, 2019, doi: 10.1109/ICSP.2018.8652475.
 B. Silverman and M. Balk, “Digital Stethoscope—Improved Auscultation at the Bedside,” Am. J. Cardiol., vol. 123, no. 6, pp. 984–985, 2019, doi: 10.1016/j.amjcard.2018.12.022.
 Y. Ma et al., “Lungbrn: A smart digital stethoscope for detecting respiratory disease using bi-resnet deep learning algorithm,” BioCAS 2019 - Biomed. Circuits Syst. Conf. Proc., pp. 1–4, 2019, doi: 10.1109/BIOCAS.2019.8919021.
 A. Lakhe, I. Sodhi, J. Warrier, and V. Sinha, “Development of digital stethoscope for telemedicine,” J. Med. Eng. Technol., vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 20–24, 2016, doi: 10.3109/03091902.2015.1116633.
 S. Leng, R. S. Tan, K. T. C. Chai, C. Wang, D. Ghista, and L. Zhong, “The electronic stethoscope,” Biomed. Eng. Online, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 1–37, 2015, doi: 10.1186/s12938-015-0056-y.
 K. Lee, Y. Ji, Y. Jeon, and Y. C. Park, “Development and Implementation of Noise-Canceling Technology for Digital Stethoscope,” J. Biomed. Eng. Res., vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 204–211, 2013, doi: 10.9718/jber.2013.34.4.204.
 B. Malik, N. Eya, H. Migdadi, M. J. Ngala, R. A. Abd-Alhameed, and J. M. Noras, “Design and development of an electronic stethoscope,” 2017 Internet Technol. Appl. ITA 2017 - Proc. 7th Int. Conf., pp. 324–328, 2017, doi: 10.1109/ITECHA.2017.8101963.
Copyright (c) 2022 Muhammad Ridha Mak'ruf, Andi Fathkur Rohman, Triwiyanto Triwiyanto, Lamidi Lamidi, Phuoc-Hai Huynh
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlikel 4.0 International (CC BY-SA 4.0) that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).